As Canadians, we take the fresh water we have for granted. From the water running through our taps to the water in our toilets, it is a part of the 2.5% of fresh water available on Earth (Saeijs, 1995). With a growing population, the per capita water available to each country is decreasing (Grafton et al., 2012). In fact this year the United Nations released a report stating that we are in a water crisis, and within the next fifteen years if we are not careful with water management, the world can potentially suffer a 40% deficit in fresh water (United Nations, 2015). Fifteen years is not so far away; we would experience this in our lifetime, which is alarming. In order to understand how to improve the water crisis, understanding the science behind fresh water is essential.
Studying hydrogeology and groundwater systems has posed as a solution in arid or semi-arid regions, and is known as the silent groundwater revolution (Lopez-Gunn and Ramón Llamas, 2008). It is referred to as a revolution because it worked-obtaining ground water changed from 100-150 Mm3 in 1950 to 950- 1,000 Mm3 in 2000. What has also led to success in obtaining groundwater is that most groundwater is that is abstracted is from highly populated countries including China and India (Lopez-Gunn and Ramón Llamas, 2008) which is important economically for global food trade. Desalination is also another option being explored to increase the global amount of freshwater. Through processes of electrochemically mediated seawater desalination, an electric field can be produced that removes salt from seawater (University of Texas, 2015). However, when considering the energy requirements to desalinate water on a global scale, it may not be entirely feasible at the moment.
Overall, the water crisis is a violent occurrence-there is nothing in the world that can replace water. And our need for water to survive will also not change. Ecosystems, agriculture, and survival of humanity all depend on water. The need for better water management systems has never been greater.
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